NCERT Chapter Solutions
Answer: Universal adult franchise is a very important aspect of democratic societies.
- It is promotes the idea of equality.
- It means that all adult (those who are 18 and above) citizens have the right to vote irrespective of their social or economic backgrounds.
- It makes the government more accountable towards her people.
Q2: Re-read the box on Article 15 and state two ways in which this Article addresses inequality?
- It states all citizens can go to public places like shops,cinema halls, restaurants etc. They cannot be stopped to enter these public places based on their caste, colour, religion or gender.
- It specifically mention that any citizen irrespective of his background can use wells, ponds, roads or public property or places funded by the government.
Q3: In what ways was Omprakash Valmiki’s experience similar to that of the Ansaris?
- Both of them suffer unequal treatment or discriminated at individual level because they belong to different caste or religion.
- Both these incidents also show though the law enforces equality but such inequalities exist within our society.
- In both cases, the dignity of the persons is not respected.
Q4: What do you understand by the term “all persons are equal before the law”? Why do you think it is important in a democracy?
Answer: The term 'All persons are equal before the law' means every citizen is entitled to all the constitutional rights and freedoms without making distinction of any kind, like gender, status, race, religion or place of birth.
It is a founding aspect of democracy. It ensures that government will take care about the needs of the all the citizens and fulfill them. It safeguards the interests of people.
Q5: Define Universal adult franchise
Answer: It means that all adult (those who are 18 and above) citizens have the right to vote irrespective of their social or economic backgrounds.
Q6: The Government of India passed the Disabilities Act in 1995. This law states that persons with disabilities have equal rights, and that the government should make possible their full participation in society. The government has to provide free education and integrate children with disabilities into mainstream schools. This law also states that all public places including buildings, schools, etc., should be accessible and provided with ramps.
Look at the photograph and think about the boy who is being carried down the stairs. Do you think the above law is being implemented in his case? What needs to be done to make the building more accessible for him? How would his being carried down the stairs affect his dignity as well as his safety?
Answer: No the Disabilities Act is not being followed here. This is also a violation of Article 15 because physically disabled person cannot access public places. Building must have proper ramps, audio guidelines and other accessibility measures. The way boy being carried down the stairs affect his dignity and the method is unsafe. It affects his dignity because every time he has to depend on other persons. Carrying the wheel chair as shown in figure is dangerous. An unbalance can cause physical injury to the boy. This "charity based" approach has a negative impact on boy's mind.
It is important such needs be address through 'rights-based' approach i.e. all persons believe that they have equal share of the public resources.
Q7: What was the Civil Rights Movement in USA?
Answer: Civil Rights Movement began in USA in 1950s in which African–American people demanded equal rights and an end to racial discrimination.
Q8: What was the role of Rosa Parks in Civil Rights Movement in USA
Answer: Rosa Parks was an African–American woman who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man on 1 December 1955. It lead to huge agitation against the unequal ways in which African–Americans were treated and this later turned into the Civil Rights Movement.
Q9: How does Indian constitution ensures equality has been implemented?
State the various provisions mentioned in the constitution to promote equality in
Answer: Indian constitution has made provisions to ensure equality has been given.
- Every person, from the President of the country to a common man, a domestic worker, has to obey the same laws.
- No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are female or male.
- Person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.
- Untouchability has been abolished.
Q10: What are the different ways through which the government tries to implement the equality as prescribed in our constitution?
Answer: The government takes following measures to implement the equality as guaranteed by our constitution.
- Through enacting new laws and enforcing these laws be followed. E.g. Disabilities Act 1995 was enacted to ensure safety and equality to physically disabled persons.
- By running various schemes and programmes to help disadvantaged communities. E.g. Giving scholarships to poor students, mid-day meal programme for school kids.
Q11: How will you define equality?
Answer: It means giving fair treatment to all human beings by the society and the state.
Q12: Does equality and diversity work together? Explain.
Answer: Yes diversity and equality work together. Equality means giving fair treatment to people coming from diverse background (caste, colour or religion etc.). Equality states that we should treat people according to their different needs without being unfair to others. "One size fits all' theory cannot work. Diversity means respecting the difference. Equality means how to respect that difference.
|One Size Fits All?|
Q13: Which was the first state in India to introduce mid-day meal school in elementary government schools?
Answer: Tamil Nadu in 2011.
Q14: List few examples of inequalities common in India?
Answer: Inequalities prevalent in India are based:
- Caste system
Q15: Define the term 'Dalit'.
Answer: Dalit is a term sometimes used by lower castes to address themselves. Dalit means ‘broken’ and by using this word, lower castes are pointing to how they were, and continue to be, seriously discriminated against.
Q16: Who is the author of the book 'Joothan'? What is the book about?
Answer: Omprakash Valmiki. it is the autobiography of the author. The book shares his experiences about the social and caste discrimination faced by him in his childhood.
Q17: What is midday meal scheme?
Answer: The midday meal scheme refers to the programme introduced in all government elementary schools to provide children with cooked lunch.
Q18: Define Dignity.
Answer: refers to thinking of oneself and other persons as worthy of respect.