Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Class 8 - Our Pasts III - CH2 - From Trade to Territory

NCERT Chapter Solution and other Q & A

Elizabeth-1
(The Unmarried Queen)
(source:wikipedia)
Queen Elizabeth-I set the new trading empire for the English. A number of  'chartered' companies were established during Elizabeth's reign:
  • the Eastland Company to trade with Scandinavia, the Baltic in 1579;
  • the Levant Company to trade with the Ottoman Empire in 1581;
  • the Africa Company to trade in slaves, in 1588; and
  • the East India Company to trade with India in 1600.


The East India Company was established mainly because the Dutch controlled the entire spice trade with Indian Subcontinent.  Spices were very popular and extremely important for making the winter salted meat tastier.  Initially The English were unsuccessful to establish themselves in this trade. The East India Company did begin to operate in India. It led to many wars (including three Carnatic wars) with the French and the Dutch. Finally the British emerged victorious and expanded its influence to control over India.

Q1: Match the following:

Answer
Diwani - right to collect land revenue
“Tiger of Mysore” - Tipu Sultan
faujdari adalat - criminal court
Rani Channamma - led an anti-British movement in Kitoor
sipahi - Sepoy

Q2: Fill in the blanks

Answer:
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of _Plassey_.

(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of _Mysore_.

(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of _Lapse_.

(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the _South-West__ part of India.

Q3: State whether true or false:

Answer:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century. - False

(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India. - False

(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab. - True

(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered. - False

Q4. What attracted European trading companies to India?

Answer: Following were the reasons European trading companies were attracted to India:
  1. The European trading companies were looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
  2. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
  3. Pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand.
  4. Spices were very popular and extremely important for making the winter salted meat tastier. 
  5. Spices were routed through Arab traders were sold at high prices thus reduced profit margins of European traders. The urge to earn high profit margins forced European traders to discover new sea routes to trade directly with India.

Q5: What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?
Answer:  
  1. After the death of Aurangzeb, Bengal the rich province of Mughal empire developed into an independent kingdom under Alivardi Khan. Later, his grandson Siraj-ud-daulah became the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. 
  2. Aurangzeb’s farman had granted the Company the right to trade duty free but were carrying on private trade on the side, were expected to pay duty. But they refused causing enormous losses to Bengal.
  3. The tension between him and the East India Company intensified.
  4. He refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade. 
  5. He, denied its right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications.
  6. Nawab accused East India Company that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the nawab.
  7. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed.
  8. The rising confrontation led Nawab to siege the English factory at Kasimbazar and William Fort. Finally it led to the battle of Plassey.
Q 6:  How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Answer: The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
  1. The East India Company monopolized trade and began direct plunder of India’s wealth.
  2. Revenues from India financed Company expenses. These revenues were used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
  3. The company used its political power to monopolize trade & dictate terms. They could impose their own prices that had no relation to the costs of production.
  4. The company used revenue of Bengal to finance exports of Indian goods.

Q7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.

Answer: East India Company or so called 'Company Bahadur' used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic methods to extend its influence before annexing an Indian kingdom. Subsidiary alliance was one the way. According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty.
For example, when Richard Wellesley was Governor-General (1798-1805), the Nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the Company in 1801, as he failed to pay for the  “subsidiary forces”.  Hyderabad was also forced to cede territories on similar grounds.

Q8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Answer
  1. British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called Presidencies. There were three Presidencies: Bengal, Madras and Bombay.
  2. Each Presidency was ruled by a Governor. The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General. 
  3. Each Presidency was divided into districts. The principal figure in an Indian district was the
    Collector. 
  4. The main job of the collector was to collect revenue and taxes and maintain law and order
    in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.
  5. Under Jurisdiction reforms, each district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari adalat ) and a civil court (diwani adalat ). Maulvis and Hindu pandits interpreted Indian laws for the collectors.
  6. European district collectors presided over civil courts. The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti but under the supervision of the collectors.
  7. Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court and a court of appeal(the Sadar Nizamat Adalat) were set up at Calcutta.
The administration system set up by the Company was not meant for the welfare of the common people. Rather its main objective was to strengthen the foundations of British rule and increase revenue of the Company.

Q9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army. 

Answer: The East India Company when began recruiting for its sepoy army, they followed the same structure as being used Mughal successor states like Awadh and Benaras. It started recruiting peasants into their armies and training them as professional soldiers. The cavalry dominated the army.

As warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined. As the soldiers were armed with muskets and matchlocks, infantry regiments became more important.

In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline that regulated their life far more than before.

Q10: Who introduced Doctrine of Lapse?

Answer: Lord Dalhousie.

Q11: What was Doctrine of Lapse? List the kingdoms which were annexed by this policy?

Answer: Lord Dalhousie introduced Doctrine of Lapse. according to this if a ruler of the protected state dies without leaving a natural heir, his state will be ruled (or annexed) by the Company. His adopted son will not be allowed to rule.

Kingdoms which were annexed by applying this doctrine:
  • Satara (1848), 
  • Sambalpur (1850), 
  • Udaipur (1852), 
  • Nagpur (1853) and 
  • Jhansi (1854). 

Q12: Who arrested Bahadur Shah Jafar, last Mughal emperor?

Answer: Captain Hudson.

Q13: Define the term 'mercantile'. Give an example.

Answer: Mercantile means a business enterprise that makes profit primarily through trade, buying goods cheap and selling them at higher prices. East India Company was a mercantile.

Q14: Who discovered the sea route to India?

Answer: Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, who had discovered this sea route to India in 1498.

Q15: Why were the trading companies like East India forced to fortify their settlements?

Answer: Competition amongst the European companies became so severe that it led to fierce battles between the trading companies. Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they regularly sank each other’s ships, blockaded routes, and prevented rival ships from moving with supplies of goods. Trade was carried on with arms and trading posts were protected through fortification.

Q16: Who led the East India Army in battle of Plassey?

Answer: Robert Clive


Q17:  When was Battle of Plassey fought?

Answer: 1757

Q18: What was the main reason for the defeat of Sirajuddaulah at Plassey?

Answer: The main reasons for the defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the battle. Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.

In addition to this, Jagat Seth (biggest banker of Bengal), Khadim Khan (commander of Nawab's Army), Manikchand were also part of conspiracy against Nawab.

Q19: What were the reasons behind making Mir Qasim as Nawab of Bengal?

Answer: Once Company's puppet Nawab Mir Jafar protested against monetary demands of the Company, he was deposed and Mir Qasim was installed as Nawab of Bengal.

Q20: What was the outcome of Battle of Buxar?

Answer: The Battle of Buxar resulted in complete control of Bengal under Company's rule. It also boosted Company's plans to annex Indian states.

Q21: How were Company officials received by the British people?

Answer: Many of the Company officials were from poor families and came India to earn. Although a many of them died an early death in India due to disease and war. A few of them who managed to return with wealth led flashy lives and flaunted their riches, were not well received by the people of England. They were called “nabobs”. They were often seen as upstarts and social climbers
in British society and were ridiculed or made fun of in plays and cartoons.

Q22: Write a short note on Robert Clive?
                  OR
Q: What was the contribute of Robert Clive? How was he received by the British Parliament?

Answer: Robert Clive joined East India Company in 1743 at Madras at the age of 18. He was a civil servant. Later he transferred himself to the military service of the company. The foundation of the British Empire in India was laid down by Robert Clive. He was known as the ‘Conqueror of India’, after winning the Battle of Plassey. Due to his success in the war he was appointed as the first governor of Bengal. He introduced a new administrative system in  Bengal known as Dual government (Dyarchy). Although he was was asked to remove corruption in Company administration but he himself amassed a fortune in India. On his return to England, he was cross-examined in 1772 by the British Parliament which was suspicious of his vast wealth. Although he was acquitted, he committed suicide in 1774.

Q23: What steps did Tipu Sultan carry out to strengthen his kingdom?

Answer: Tipu Sultan was an industrious leader like his father, Haider Ali. He carried out economic as well as military reforms to strengthen his kingdom.
  1. Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of Malabar  and disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company.
  2. He established a close relationship with the French and and modernised his army.
Q24: Why did East India Company took sons of Tipu Sultan as hostages?

Answer: East India Company saw the strengthening of Mysore kingdom under the leadership of Tipu Sultan, a direct threat to its political or economic interests. To check this, the Company resorted to direct military confrontation. They fought four battles with Tipu Sultan and were defeated. But in 1792, attacked by the combined forces of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Company, Tipu was forced to sign a treaty with the British by which two of his sons were taken away as hostages. He was forced by the Company to accept Subsidiary alliance.

Q25: How were Maratha Chiefs organised?

Answer: Marathas were divided into many states under different chiefs (sardars) belonging to dynasties such as Sindhia, Holkar, Gaikwad and Bhonsle. These chiefs were held together in a confederacy (alliance) under a Peshwa (Principal Minister) who became its effective military and administrative head based in Pune.

Q26: When was Third Battle of Panipat fought?

Answer: 1761
Note:It was fought between Maratha rulers and Ahmad Shah Abdali (allied with Mughal Empire and backing of East India Company). It shattered Maratha's dream to rule India. Although Ahmad Shah won but he never attacked Delhi again. It weakened Mughal empire further and gave opportunity to East India Company to annex North India.

Q27: Name two statesmen under Maratha alliance?

Answer: Mahadji Sindhia, Nana Phadnis

Q28: Write a short note about three Anglo Maratha Wars?
Answer:
WarYearOutcome
First Anglo-Maratha War 1782    Ended with the Treaty of Salbai, there was no clear victor.
2nd Anglo-Maratha War1803-05   Fought on different fronts. British gained Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna river including Agra and Delhi.
3rd Anglo-Maratha War1817-19Maratha power was crushed. Company had complete control over the territories south of the Vindhyas. The Peshwa was removed and sent away to Bithur near Kanpur with a pension.

Q29: Where is Fort William located?
Answer: Kolkota (Calcutta)

Q30: Where is Fort St. George located?
Answer: Chennai (Madras)


4 comments:

  1. it is really helpful for finding answers easily and in a short span of time

    ReplyDelete
  2. these answers have realy helped me in making this lesson easy to learn

    ReplyDelete